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Classifications and standards

Viscosity classification of motor oils (SAE J300)

The SAE J300 international viscosity classification system for motor oils was developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers of the USA (Society of Automotive Engineers). The specification describes three ranges of oil viscosity: winter, summer and all-weather.

One of the main properties of engine oil is its viscosity and its dependence on temperature in a wide range (from the ambient air temperature at the time of a cold start in winter to the maximum oil temperature in the engine at maximum load in summer). The most complete description of the compliance of the viscosity-temperature properties of oils with the requirements of engines is contained in the internationally accepted classification SAE J300.

This classification divides motor oils into 14 grades from 0W to 60: 6 winter (0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, 25W) and 8 summer (8, 12, 16, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60) viscosity grades .

The letter W in front of the number means that the oil is adapted to work at low temperatures (Winter - winter). For these oils, in addition to the minimum viscosity at 100°C, an additional temperature limit is given for the pumpability of the oil in cold conditions. The pumpability limit temperature means the minimum temperature at which the engine pump is able to supply oil to the lubrication system. This temperature value can be considered as the minimum temperature at which the motor can be started safely.

All-weather oils are designated by a double number, the first of which indicates the maximum values of the dynamic viscosity of the oil at low temperatures and guarantees starting properties, and the second determines the range of kinematic viscosity at 100 ° C and dynamic viscosity at 150 ° C, characteristic of the corresponding summer oil viscosity class.

The test methods included in the assessment of the properties of oils according to SAE J300 provide the consumer with information about the maximum oil temperature at which the engine can be turned by the starter and the oil pump pumps oil under pressure during a cold start in a mode that does not allow dry friction in friction units.

The abbreviation HTHS stands for High Temperature High Shear Rate, i.e."high temperature - high shear strength". This test measures the viscosity stability of an oil under extreme conditions, at very high temperatures.

Most of the motor oils on the market today are multigrade, i.e. they meet the requirements for viscosity both at low and at high temperatures.

It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that for engines of various designs, the temperature ranges for the performance of oils of this class according to SAE differ significantly. They depend on the power of the starter, the minimum starting speed of the crankshaft required to start the engine, on the performance of the oil pump, on the hydraulic resistance of the oil intake tract and many other structural, technological and operational factors (technical condition of the car, the quality of gasoline or diesel fuel, the qualifications of the driver and etc.).

SAE engine oil classification

Low temperature viscosity grades for SAE J300 2015 engine oils

SAE viscosity gradeLow temperature viscosity
Rotation 1,
MPa s, max, at
temp., °С
Pumpability 2,
MPa s, max, at
temp., °С
0W6200 at -3560000 at -40
5W6600 at -3060000 at -35
10W7000 at -2560000 at -30
15W7000 at -2060000 at -25
20W9500 at -1560000 at -20
25W13000 at -1060000 at -15
eight--
12--
16--
twenty--
thirty--
40--
40--
fifty--
60--

High temperature viscosity grades for SAE J300 2015 engine oils

SAE viscosity gradeHigh temperature viscosity
Kinematic viscosity 3,
mm 2 /at 100 C
At high
shear rate 4, MPa s, at 150°С and 10^6 s-1, min
minmax
0W3.8--
5W3.8--
10W4.1--
15W5.6--
20W5.6--
25W9.3--
eight4.06.11.7
125.07.12.0
166.18.22.3
twenty6.99.32.6
thirty9.312.52.9
4012.516.33.5 (grades 0W-40, 5W-40, 10W-40)
4012.516.33.7 (grades 15W-40, 20W-40, 25W-40, 40)
fifty16.321.93.7
6021.926.13.7

1 ASTM D 2602 - CCS cold start simulator;

2 ASTM D 4684 and D 3829 - mini rotational viscometer MRV;

The presence of any shear stress detected by this method means that the test fails regardless of the viscosity value;

3 ASTM D 445 - glass capillary viscometer;

4 ASTM D 4683 - tapered bearing simulator; CEC-L-36-A-90 (ASTM D4741 and ASTM D5481);

Notes: 1 cP = 1 mPa s; <1 cSt = 1 mm 2 /s

API engine oil classification

The API engine service classification system (API Engine Service Classification System) has evolved since 1969 as a result of the joint work of API, ASTM and SAE. The system is fully set out in ASTM D 4485, Standard Performance Specification for Performance of Engine Oils and SAE J183 APR96, Engine Oil Performance and Engine Performance Classifications (Excluding Energy Efficient Oils) ( Engine Oil Performance and Engine Service Classifications (Other than "Energy Conserving").

According to the API system (ASTM D 4485, SAE J183 APR96), three performance categories for the purpose and quality of motor oils are established:

S (Service) - consists of quality categories of motor oils for gasoline engines, going in chronological order. For each new generation, an additional letter is assigned alphabetically: API SA, API SB, API SC, API SD, API SE, API SF, API SG, API SH and API SJ (SI category - intentionally omitted by API, to avoid confusion with the International system measures).

The API SA, API SB, API SC, API SD, API SE, API SF, API SG categories are now invalidated as obsolete, however, in some countries, oils of these categories are still produced, the API SH category is "conditionally valid" and may be used only as an option, eg API CG-4/SH.

The SL class was introduced in 2001 and differs from the SJ in significantly better antioxidant, antiwear, antifoam properties, as well as lower volatility;

C (Commercial) - consists of categories of quality and purpose of oils for diesel engines, going in chronological order. For each new generation, an additional alphabetical letter is assigned: API CA, API CB, API CC, API CD, API CD-II, API CE, API CF, API CF-2, API CF-4, API CG-4 and API CH -four. Categories API CA, API CB, API CC, API CD, API CD-II are now invalidated as obsolete, but in some countries oils of these categories are still produced;

EC (Energy Conserving) - energy-saving oils - a new range of high-quality oils, consisting of low-viscosity, easy-flowing oils that reduce fuel consumption according to the results of tests on gasoline engines.

Engine oils that exhibit low viscosity at both low and high temperatures can be certified to the API EC "Energy Conserving" Oil category. Previously, energy savings was determined using the Sequence VI method (ASTM RR D02 1204). This methodology has been used to certify API SH oils for energy efficiency levels (degrees) of API SH/EC - 1.5% fuel economy and API SH/ECII - 2.7% fuel economy compared to SAE 20w-30 reference oil. The Roman numerals after the letters EU indicate the level of fuel economy achieved (EU II - 2.5%).

Universal oils for gasoline and diesel engines are indicated by two symbols of the corresponding categories: the first symbol is the main one, and the second indicates the possibility of using this oil for another type of engine. For example, API CG-4/SH is an oil optimized for use in diesel engines, but it can also be used in gasoline engines for which an oil of API SH and lower categories (SG, SF, SE, etc.) is prescribed.


Classification for gasoline engines - S scale

ClassRecommended area of applicationYear of issueQualitative indicators
SN plusAPI SN Plus is an enhancement to the API SN specification designed to quickly address LSPI problems by reformulating engine oil additives to meet the specific requirements of turbocharged direct injection engines. The main change to the specification itself is the addition of an in-cylinder pre-ignition test (Seq IX) developed by Ford engineers. Other improved requirements of the standard:
  • Tests from the ILSAC GF-5 standard for oxidation resistance, piston cleanliness, compatibility with Seq III emission control systems (Fiat Chrysler);
  • Deposit protection tests Seq V (Ford);
  • Tests for protection against low-temperature wear of valves Seq IV (Toyota);
  • Fuel efficiency tests Seq VI (General Motors).
Evaporation, shear stability and turbocharger protection tests have not changed. The new API SN Plus standard includes all viscosities of the previous API SN and API SN Resource Conserving standards, including the new 0W-16 and 5W-16 viscosities.
From May 2018-
SNIntroduced in October 2010. This is the highest service category for cars with gasoline engines. This new North American standard replaces the previous SM service category, which was introduced in 2004. API SN engine oils can be used in engines requiring API SM and earlier S categories. API SN oils are an improvement over API SM in areas of oxidative stability and control of deposits and sludge. The API has also introduced a new designation, Resource Conserving, which can be used in conjunction with API SN. The "Resource Conserving" designation has replaced the previous "Energy Conserving" designation. Since 2011-
SMIntroduced in November 2004. Trends in the development of technology are aimed at improving their environmental safety, increasing maintenance intervals while maintaining reliability. Naturally, this makes its own adjustments to the process of improving engines, and is also reflected in the qualities of lubricants. Following these trends, in November 2004, a class for engine oils for gasoline engines appeared in the API classification - SM, suggesting, in comparison with SL, increased requirements for lubricants regarding oxidation resistance, protection against deposits, wear, etc.Since <2004/b>-
SL(active). API planned to develop the PS-06 project as the next API SK category, but one motor oil supplier in Korea uses the abbreviation "SK" as part of its corporate name. To eliminate possible confusion, the letter "K" will be omitted for the next category "S".
  • stability of energy-saving properties;
  • reduced volatility;
  • extended drain intervals.
Since 2001-
SJ(active). The category was approved on 11/06/1995, licenses began to be issued from 10/15/1996. Automotive oils in this category are designed for all currently used gasoline engines and completely replace the oils of all previously existing categories in older engine models. The maximum level of operational properties. API SJ/EC Energy Saving Certification Possibility.Since <1996/b>-
SH(Conditionally active). Licensed category approved in 1992. To date, the category is conditionally valid and can only be certified as an additional category to API C categories (for example, API CF-4 / SH). According to the requirements, it meets the ILSAC GF-1 category, but without mandatory energy saving. Automobile oils in this category are designed for gasoline engines of 1996 and older models. Since <1993/b>Higher for models from 1995 onwards
SGLicensed category approved in 1988. The issuance of licenses ceased at the end of 1995. Automotive oils are designed for engines of 1993 and older models. Fuel - unleaded gasoline with oxygenates. Satisfy the requirements for automotive diesel engine oils of the API CC and API CD categories. They have higher thermal and oxidation stability, improved anti-wear properties, reduced tendency to form deposits and sludge. API SG automotive oils replace API SF, SE, API SF/CC and API SE/CC oils.<1989 - <1993/b>Graduate for four-stroke engines
SFAutomobile oils in this category are designed for engines of 1988 and older models. Fuel - leaded gasoline. They have more effective than the previous categories, antioxidant, anti-wear, anti-corrosion properties and have a lower tendency to form high and low temperature deposits and slag. API SF automotive oils replace API SC, API SD and API SE oils in older engines.1981 - 1988Graduate for two-stroke engines
SEHigh performance engines operating under severe conditions.<1972 - <1980/b>Higher
SDMedium boosted engines operating in difficult conditions.1968 - 1971Average
SCEngines operating with increased loads.1964 - 1967-
SBMotors operating at moderate loads are used only at the request of the manufacturer.--
SAEngines operating in light conditions are used only at the request of the manufacturer.--

For automotive gasoline engines, the latest API quality category includes the performance properties of each earlier category and can be used to service older engines where oils of the earlier category were recommended.


Classification for diesel engines - according to scale C

ClassRecommended area of applicationYear of issueQualitative indicators
CKDesigned for high-speed 4-stroke diesel engines that meet 2017 model year on-highway and Tier 4 off-road emission standards, as well as previous model year engines. These oils are designed for use with fuels containing up to 500 ppm sulfur (0.05% by weight). However, the use of these oils with fuels containing more than 15 ppm sulfur (0.0015% by weight) may affect the life of the aftertreatment system and/or the oil change interval. These oils are especially effective in improving the durability of exhaust systems that use diesel particulate filters and other high-tech components. API CK-4 have improved oxidation protection, do not lose viscosity as a result of shear and aeration loads, and do not damage the catalyst and particulate filter, reduce engine wear, Since 2017-
FA-4Some XW-30 oils are specially formulated for use in certain models of high speed four-stroke diesel engines that meet the 2017 Highway Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards. These oils are designed for use in long haul trucks using diesel fuel with sulfur content up to 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight). API FA-4 oils are not interchangeable or backward compatible with API CK-4, CJ-4, CI-4 Plus, CI-4, and CH-4 oils. See recommendationsengine manufacturer to determine if API FA-4 oils are suitable for use. API FA-4 oils are not recommended for use with fuels containing more than 15 ppm sulfur.Since <2017/b>-
CJ-4Introduced in 2006. For high-speed four-stroke engines designed to meet 2007 emission standards on main roads. CJ-4 oils allow the use of fuels with sulfur content up to 500 ppm (0.05% by weight). However, operation with fuels containing more than 15ppm (0.0015% by weight) sulfur may affect the performance of aftertreatment systems and/or oil change intervals. CJ-4 oils are recommended for engines equipped with diesel particulate filters and other aftertreatment systems. Oils with the CJ-4 specification exceed the performance properties of CI-4, CI-4 Plus, CH-4, CG-4, CF-4 and can be used in engines for which oils of these classes are recommended.Since 2006-
CI-4Introduced in 2002. For high-speed four-stroke engines designed to meet the 2002 exhaust emission regulations. CI-4 oils allow the use of fuels with a sulfur content of up to 0.5% by weight, and are also used in engines with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Replaces CD, CE, CF-4, CG 4 and CH-4 oils. In 2004, an additional API category, CI-4 PLUS, was introduced. The requirements for soot formation, deposits, viscosity indicators, and the limitation of the TBN value have been tightened.Since 2002-
CH-4Introduced in 1998. For high speed 4-stroke engines that meet U.S. emission regulations since 1998. CH-4 oils allow the use of fuels with a sulfur content of up to 0.5% by weight. Can be used instead of CD, CE, CF-4 and CG-4 oils.Since <1998/b>-
CG-4Introduced in 1995. For engines of high-speed diesel vehicles operating on fuel with a sulfur content of less than 0.5%. CG-4 oils for engines that comply with the exhaust gas toxicity requirements introduced in the USA since 1994. Replaces CD, CE and CF-4 oils.Since 1995Graduate for engines since 1995
CF-4Introduced in 1990. For high-speed four-stroke diesel engines with and without turbocharging. Can be used instead of CD and CE oils.Since <1990/b>Graduate for four-stroke engines
CF-2Introduced in 1994. Improved performance, used instead of CD-II for two-stroke engines.Since <1994/b>Graduate for two-stroke engines
CFIntroduced in 1994. Oils for off-road vehicles, engines with split injection, including those running on fuel with a sulfur content of 0.5% by weight and above. Replaces CD oils.Since 1994-
CEHighly boosted advanced high turbo engines operating in severe conditions can be used in place of CC and CD grade oils.Since 1987higher
CDA class of oils for high-speed turbocharged diesel engines with high specific power, operating at high speeds and at high pressures, requiring increased anti-wear properties and prevention of carbon deposits.Since 1955average
CCHighly boosted engines (including moderately supercharged) operating in difficult conditions.Since <1961/b>low
CBMedium-boosted naturally aspirated engines operating at high loads on sour fuel.1949 - 1960-
CAEngines operating at moderate loads on low sulfur fuel.1940 - 1950-

Universal oils for gasoline engines and diesel engines have the designations of both categories, for example API SG / CD, API SJ / CF.

Classes of diesel oils are additionally subdivided for two-stroke (CD-2, CF-2) and four-stroke diesel engines (CF-4, CG-4, CH-4).

API currently certifies SJ, SL, CF, CF-2, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4 engine oils. Oils of other API classes canceled in the USA should be used if they are approved by the vehicle manufacturers.

Classification of engine oils according to ACEA

The Association of European Automobile Manufacturers ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens de L'Automobile) represents the interests of 15 European manufacturers of cars, trucks and buses at the EU level. This classification establishes a new, more stringent than CCMC, European classification of motor oils according to performance properties.

The ACEA Association was organized in Europe in 1991 with a head office in Brussels, including a Secretary General and a Secretariat. In 1995 and 2004, ACEA opened additional offices in Tokyo and Beijing. The Board of Directors consists of top managers of car manufacturers, members of the association, such as BMW GROUP, PORSCHE AG, DAF TRUCKS NV, PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN, DAIMLER AG, RENAULT SA, FIAT SpA, SCANIA AB, FORD OF EUROPE GmbH, TOYOTA MOTOR EUROPE, GENERAL MOTORS EUROPE AG, VOLKSWAGEN AG, JAGUAR LAND ROVER, AB VOLVO, MAN NUTZFAHRZEUGE AG.

The current classification "ACEA 2016" consists of three engine classes: A, B and E (petrol, light diesel and heavy duty diesel engines respectively).

Each class is categorized into different performance levels:

  • Four for petrol and light diesel engines (A1/B1, A3/B3, A3/B4, A5/B5);
  • Five specifically for gasoline and light diesel engines equipped with catalytic aftertreatment systems (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5);
  • Four for heavy duty diesel engines (E4, E6, E7, E9).

This is followed by the year in which the category was introduced and, if necessary, the edition number if the specifications have been updated.

A/B: engine oils for gasoline and diesel engines of cars, vans, minibuses
A1/B1Mechanical degradation resistant oils designed for use with extended drain intervals in gasoline and diesel engines of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles designed to use low viscosity, friction reducing oils with dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) 2.6 mPa•s for SAE xW-20 and 2.9 to 3.5 mPa•s for other viscosity grades.
These oils may not be suitable for lubricating some engines. You must follow the instruction manual and manuals. Obsolete classification since 2016
A3/B3Oils resistant to mechanical degradation with high performance properties, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline and diesel engines of cars and light trucks and / or for use with extended oil change intervals in accordance with the recommendations of engine manufacturers, and / or for all-weather use of low viscosity oils, and / or all-weather use in especially severe operating conditions. TBN ≥ 8.0
A3/B4Oils resistant to mechanical degradation with high performance properties, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline and diesel engines with direct fuel injection, also suitable for use according to the A3 / B3 specification. TBN ≥ 10.0
A5/B5Oils resistant to mechanical degradation, designed for use with extended oil change intervals in highly accelerated gasoline and diesel engines of light vehicles, in which the use of low-viscosity friction-reducing oils with dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) from 2, 9 to 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 8.0
These oils may not be suitable for lubricating some engines. You must follow the instruction manual and manuals.

C: engine oils for gasoline and diesel engines with exhaust gas recovery catalysts
C1Oils resistant to mechanical degradation, compatible with exhaust gas aftertreatment catalysts, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline engines and diesel engines of light vehicles that require the use of low-viscosity, friction-reducing oils with low sulfur, phosphorus and low sulfate ash content (Low SAPS) and dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) of at least 2.9 mPa•s. These oils extend the life of diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC) and provide fuel economy. Fuel economy from 3%. The viscosity grade 0W30 is provided.
C2Oils resistant to mechanical degradation, compatible with exhaust gas aftertreatment catalysts, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline engines and diesel engines of light vehicles that require the use of low-viscosity, friction-reducing oils with a reduced content of sulfur, phosphorus and low sulphated ash content (Mid SAPS) and dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) of at least 2.9 mPa•s. These oils extend the life of diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC) and provide fuel economy. Available in XW30 viscosity grades. Fuel economy from 2.5%.
C3Oils resistant to mechanical degradation, compatible with exhaust gas aftertreatment catalysts, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline engines and diesel engines of light vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC), which require the use of friction reducing oils with reduced sulfur, phosphorus and low sulphated ash content (Mid SAPS) and with a dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) of at least 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 6.0. These oils increase the life of diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC). Fuel economy (on XW30) from 1%.
C4Oils resistant to mechanical degradation, compatible with exhaust gas aftertreatment catalysts, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline engines and diesel engines of light vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC), which require the use of oils with a low content of sulfur, phosphorus and low sulphated ash content (Low SAPS) and dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) of at least 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 6.0. These oils increase the life of diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC). Fuel economy from 1%. The viscosity grade 0W30 is provided.
C5Oils resistant to mechanical degradation, compatible with exhaust gas aftertreatment catalysts, designed for use in highly accelerated gasoline engines and diesel engines of light vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC), which require the use of oils with a reduced content of sulfur, phosphorus and low sulphated ash content (Mid SAPS) and dynamic viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) 2.6 - 2.9 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 6.0. These oils increase the life of diesel particulate filters (DPF) and three-way catalysts (TWC). Fuel economy from 3%. Viscosity classes 0W20, 5W20 are provided.

E: engine oils for heavy duty diesel engines
E4Multigrade engine oil providing excellent piston cleanliness, wear protection and reduced soot formation. Recommended for diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and operating under very severe conditions, such as significantly extended oil change intervals. Suitable for engines without DPF and for some engines with EGR and equipped with SCR emission reduction systems. HTHS ≥ 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 12.0
E6Multigrade engine oil providing excellent piston cleanliness, wear protection and reduced soot formation. Recommended for diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V and Euro VI emission requirements and operating under very severe conditions, such as significantly extended oil change intervals. Suitable for engines with EGR, recommended for engines equipped with or without DPF particulate filters and engines equipped with SCR emission reduction systems. Designed for use in combination with low sulfur diesel fuel. HTHS ≥ 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 7.0
E7Multigrade engine oil providing excellent piston cleanliness, wear protection and reduced soot formation. Recommended for diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, and Euro V emission requirements and operating under very severe conditions, such as significantly extended oil change intervals. Suitable for engines without DPF particulate filters, as well as for most EGR engines and most engines equipped with SCR emission reduction systems. HTHS ≥ 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 9.0
E9Multigrade engine oil providing excellent piston cleanliness, wear protection and reduced soot formation. Recommended for diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V and Euro VI emission requirements and operating under very severe conditions, such as significantly extended oil change intervals. Suitable for engines with EGR, recommended for engines equipped with or without DPF diesel particulate filters, as well as engines equipped with SCR emission reduction systems. Designed for use in combination with low sulfur diesel fuel. HTHS ≥ 3.5 mPa•s, TBN ≥ 7.0

List of abbreviations:

SAPS (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulfur) "level of sulfated ash, phosphorus and sulfur".

HTHS - High Temperature Viscosity at High Shear Rates.

TBN is the base number.

EGR - exhaust gas recirculation system.

DPF - diesel particulate filter.

Classification of motor oils according to ILSAC

The American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) have jointly established the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC).

The main differences between oils of the ILSAC category:

  • low volatility (according to NOACK or ASTM);
  • good low temperature filterability (General Motors test);
  • low foaming tendency (test ASTM D892/D6082 Sequence I-IV);
  • mandatory fuel economy (ASTM test, Sequence VIA);
  • low phosphorus content (to prevent catalyst clogging).

ILSAC classification for gasoline engines

When dividing engine oils into classes, the International Committee for Standardization and Approval of Lubricants relies heavily on API classification. So, there are five categories for gasoline engines, diesel engines are not included in the ILSAC classification.

Quality categoryDescription
GF-1Obsolete, introduced in 1996. Meets API SH quality requirements, SAE 0W-XX, SAE 5W-XX, SAE 10W-XX viscosity grades;
GF-2Obsolete, introduced in 1997. Meets the quality requirements of API SJ classification, viscosity grades SAE 0W-20, SAE 5W-20.
GF-3Introduced in 2001. Meets API SL quality requirements. It differs from GF-2 and API SJ in significantly better antioxidant and antiwear properties, as well as lower volatility. The requirements for ILSAC GF-3 and API SL classes are largely the same, but GF-3 oils are necessarily energy efficient.
GF-4Introduced in 2004. Conforms to API SM classification quality requirements with mandatory energy-saving properties. SAE viscosity grades 0W-20, 5W-20, 0W-30, 5W-30 and 10W-30. Differs from the GF-3 category in higher oxidation resistance, improved detergent properties and less tendency to form deposits. In addition, oils must be compatible with catalytic exhaust gas recovery systems.
GF-5Introduced October 1, 2010 Meets API SN quality requirements. SAE viscosity grades 0W-20, 5W-20, 0W-30, 5W-30. It differs from the GF-4 category in improved energy saving by 0.5%, enhanced anti-wear properties, provides reduced sludge formation in the turbine, a noticeable reduction in carbon deposits in the engine.
GF-6The ILSAC GF-6 specification is currently under development and is likely to be split into two sub-specs. The ILSAC GF-6A will be fully compatible with the predecessor ILSAC GF-5, but will offer improved fuel economy, engine protection, and improved properties to maintain system durability. ILSAC GF-6B will have similar performance to ILSAC GF-5A but will incorporate lower viscosity oils like xW-16 to achieve the fuel economy offered by the new SAE 16 viscosity grade.
Viscosity classification of gear oils (SAE J306 and J2360)

The SAE index, which indicates the viscosity of gear oil, was developed by the American Society of Engineers. This standard has become widespread throughout the world and today the SAE J306 specification is used to determine the viscosity classification of engine oil for drive axles and manual transmissions. This qualification also determines the temperature range in which the use of a particular lubricant is permissible.


Viscosity grades for mechanical transmission oils (SAE J306)

SAE viscosity gradeMaximum temperature
at a viscosity of 150000, cP, (a), (e)
Viscosity at 100°C, mm 2 /s  (b)
min  (s)max
70W-55  (d)4.1
75W-404.1
80W-267.0
85W-1211.0
807.0<11.0
8511.0<13.5
9013.5<18.5
11018.5<24.0
14024.0<32.5
19032.5<41.0
25041.0
Notes(a)  ASTM D2983;
(b)  ASTM D445;
(c)  The limit must be maintained after 20 hours of testing CEC L-45-T-93, Method C;
(d)  ASTM D2983 method does not provide the necessary accuracy when measuring below -40°C. This fact must be taken into account in any consumer-producer relationship; (e)  Additional low temperature viscosity requirements may apply to fluids intended for use in light duty synchronized manual transmissions (cars, vans, etc.);

Information about the recommended viscosities of automotive oils for use is entered in the vehicle service manual, on the basis of which the user selects the appropriate product in the range of lubricants.

The viscosity of the gear oil must be selected taking into account the highest and lowest ambient temperatures at which the vehicle is planned to operate. Based on these considerations, the SAE J306 classification is based on low temperature and high temperature viscosities.

By analogy with the classification of motor oils, the viscosity grades of gear oils can be divided into conditional series:

  • winter series: SAE 70W, 75W, 80W, 85W;
  • summer series: SAE 80, 85, 90, 140, 250;

The conditionality of such a division is explained by the design features of transmission units of various manufacturers. Depending on the operating oil temperatures and loads, there are units (manual transmissions of passenger cars) for which winter grade oils will provide a sufficient degree of protection in a wide range of external temperatures. It is not uncommon to recommend the all-weather use of winter oils.


SAE J2360 standard

There is another standard developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) after GL-5 and MT-1 (API graded gear oils) were found to be inadequate in today's transmissions. Made based on these standards plus US military standard MIL-PRF-2105E.

SAE viscosity gradeMaximum temperature
at a viscosity of 150000, cP, (a), (e)
Viscosity at 100°C, mm 2 /s  (b)
min  (s)max
75W-404.1
80W-90-2613.518.5
85W-140-1224.035.5

Pour and flash point

SAE viscosity gradePour point, °СFlash point, °С
minmin
75W-45150
80W-90-35165
85W-140-twenty180

(a)  ASTM D2983;
(b)  ASTM D445;
(c)  The limit must be maintained after 20 hours of testing CEC L-45-T-93, Method C;
(d)  ASTM D2983 method does not provide the necessary accuracy when measuring below -40°C. This fact must be taken into account in any consumer-producer relationship; (e)  Additional low temperature viscosity requirements may apply to fluids intended for use in light duty synchronized manual transmissions (cars, vans, etc.).

API classification of gear oils

According to the API GL system, oils are divided into quality classes. The main features of the classification are the design and operating conditions of the transmission, additional features are the content of antiwear and extreme pressure additives. The classification is described in the API document “Designation of operating lubricating oils for manual transmissions and axles. API Publication 1560, February 1976" <(API Publication 1560, Lubricant Service Designation for Automotive Manual Transmissions and Axles, February 1976).

APIOperating conditionsApplication areaOil composition (presence of additives)
GL‑2Moderate in terms of loads and sliding speedsWorm gears of vehicles, usually tractors and agricultural machinesMineral oil with depressant, antifoam and antifriction additive
GL‑3Moderately hard with medium loads and sliding speedsManual gearboxes and helical-bevel gears of the rear axles of trucksThe same, + the oil contains a weak EP additive
GL‑4Heavy in terms of loads and sliding speedsManual gearboxes and spiral-bevel gears of the rear axles of passenger carsThe oil should contain an extreme pressure additive of medium activity. Typically 50% GL-5 oil additives
GL‑5Very severe conditions for loads and speeds, including shock in hypoid gear at high sliding speedHypoid gears for cars and trucksThe oil must contain active extreme pressure and antiwear additives.
GL‑6Very severe conditions with high sliding speeds and shock loads in a hypoid gearHypoid gears with a significant offset of the gear axesThe oil must contain active extreme pressure and antiwear additives. EP additive percentage should be higher than GL-5 oil
MT‑1Hypoid gears operating under very severe operating conditionsNon-synchronized manual transmissions of powerful commercial vehiclesEquivalent to GL-5 oil, but with improved thermal stability
Classification of industrial oils by viscosity
ISO - viscosity class according to DIN 51 519Index 1Kinematic viscosity 2, mm 2 /sDynamic viscosity 3, mPa*s, at 40 °C
at 20°Сat 40°Cat 50°C
ISO VG 22≈3.32.2≈1.3≈2.0
ISO VG 33≈53.2≈2.7≈2.9
ISO VG 55≈84.6≈3.7≈4.1
ISO VG 77≈136.8≈5.2≈6.2
ISO VG 10ten≈21ten≈7≈9.1
ISO VG 15fifteen≈34fifteen≈11≈13.5
ISO VG 2222-22≈15≈18
ISO VG 3232-32≈20≈29
ISO VG 4646-46≈30≈42
ISO VG 6868-68≈40≈61
ISO VG 100100-100≈60≈90
ISO VG 150150-150≈90≈135
ISO VG 220220-220≈130≈200
ISO VG 320320-320≈180≈290
ISO VG 460460-460≈250≈415
ISO VG 680680-680≈360≈620
ISO VG 10001000-1000≈510≈900
ISO VG 15001500-1500≈740≈1350

1 Indices are viscosities with deviations of ±10%.

2 The conversion of kinematic viscosity to dynamic viscosity is based on the average density values of various lubricating oils.

The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m2/s. <1 mm 2 / s \u003d 1 * 10 -6 m 2 / s

The SI unit of dynamic viscosity is (Pa*s) 1 mPa*s=1*10 -3 Pa*s

Classification of hydraulic oils according to DIN 51 524

The German Institute for Standardization (German: Deutsches Institut für Normung eV abbr. DIN) is Germany's national organization for standards development.

The DIN 51524 classification covers hydraulic oils and is divided into several parts.

The most common are the following classes:

  • DIN 51 524-3 HVLP - oils that contain additives against corrosion, oxidation, wear, as well as additives that increase the viscosity index (viscosity index over 140, pressure over 100 bar). Oils are designated as universal applications, but the greatest effect is achieved when using such oils in external hydraulic systems of various equipment.
  • DIN 51 524-2 HLP - oils containing additives against corrosion, oxidation and wear (viscosity index exceeds 80-100, pressure over 100 bar). General purpose oils, which are nevertheless recommended for use in internal hydraulic systems.
  • DIN 51 524-1 HL - oils containing additives against corrosion and oxidation (viscosity index exceeds 80-100, pressure over 100 bar). Such oils are recommended for use in internal hydraulic systems with relatively low pressure in the system.

Minimum requirements for hydraulic fluids DIN 51 524

DIN 51 524 Part 1 - Hydraulic fluids with improved anti-corrosion and anti-oxidation properties
Class (DIN 51 502)HL 10HL 15HL 22HL 32HL46HL68HL 100HL 150
ISO viscosity grade (DIN 51 519)VG 10VG 15VG 22VG 32VG46VG68VG 100VG 150
Viscosity at 0°C/-20°C maximum, mm2 /
(DIN EN ISO 3104)
90 (600)150300420780140025604500
Viscosity at 40 °C minimum - maximum, mm 2 / s-1 (DIN EN ISO 3104)9.0-11.013.5-16.519.8-24.228.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890.0-110135-165
Viscosity at 100 °C minimum, mm 2 / s
(DIN EN ISO 3104)
2.53.24.15.06.17.89.914.0
Maximum pour point, °С (DIN ISO 3016)-thirty-27-21-eighteen-fifteen-12-12-12
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup (DIN EN ISO 2592)125140165175185195205215
Purity class (ISO 4406:1999)21/19/16 (Specific requirements vary by system)
Solid contaminants max. mg/kg (DIN ISO 4405:1991)fifty
Filterability without H 2 O, stage IF 1 / stage IIF, minimum, % (F DIN ISO 13357-2)80/60
Filterability c Н 2 O, stage IF 1 / stage IIF 11, minimum, % (F DIN ISO 13357-1)70/50
Maximum demulsibility, °С, minutes (DIN ISO 6614)  20 (54°С)    30 (54°C)  30 (82°С)
Maximum water content, % m/m (DIN FN ISO 12937)0.05
Steel Corrosion - Method A (DIN ISO 7120)Withstands
Corrosion of copper at 100 °C, 3 h maximum, corrosion degree (DIN EN ISO 2160)2
Oxidation resistance (maximum increase in acid number after 100 h) in mg KOH/g, - maximum (DIN ISO 6618/DIN EN ISO 4263-1)2.0
Compatible with SRE NBR seals after 7 days ± 2 h at 100°C (±1°C). Relative volume increase, % (DIN ISO 1817)0 to 180 to 150 to 120 to 10
Shore hardness change - A (DIN ISO 1817 incl. DIN ISO 7619-1)0 to -100 to -80 to -70 to -6
Deaeration, 50 °С maximum, min (DIN ISO 9120)5ten1725
Maximum foam volume, ml (ISO 6247:1998, incl. rev. 1:1999):
at 24 °C
at 93.5 °C
at 25 °C after 95 °C

150/0
75/0
150/0

DIN 51 524 Part 2 - Anti-wear hydraulic oils
Class (DIN 51 502)HL 10HL 15HL 22HL 32HL46HL68HL 100HL 150
ISO viscosity grade (DIN 51 519)VG 10VG 15VG 22VG 32VG46VG68VG 100VG 150
Viscosity at 0°C/-20°C maximum, mm2 /
(DIN EN ISO 3104)
90 (600)150300420780140025604500
Viscosity at 40 °C minimum - maximum, mm 2 / s (DIN EN ISO 3104)9.0-11.013.5-16.519.8-24.228.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890.0-110135-165
Viscosity at 100 °C minimum, mm 2 / s
(DIN EN ISO 3104)
2.53.24.15.06.17.89.914.0
Maximum pour point, °С (DIN ISO 3016)-thirty-27-21-eighteen-fifteen-12-12-12
Flash point minimum (DIN EN ISO 2592)125140165175185195205215
Purity class (ISO 4406:1999)21/19/16 (Specific requirements vary by system)
Solid contaminants maximum, mg/kg (ISO 4405:1991)fifty
Filterability without H 2 O, stage IF 1 / stage IIF, minimum, % (DIN ISO 13357-2)80/60
Filterability c Н 2 O, stage IF / stage IIF, minimum, % (DIN ISO 13357-1)70/50
Maximum demulsibility, °С, minutes (DIN ISO 6614)20 (54°C)30 (54°C)30 (82°C)
Maximum water content, % m/m (DIN FN ISO 12937 - method A)0.05
Steel Corrosion - Method A (DIN ISO 7120)Withstands
Corrosion of copper at 100 °C, 3 h maximum, corrosion degree (DIN EN ISO 2160)2
Oxidation resistance (maximum increase in acid number after 100 h) in mg KOH/g, - maximum (DIN EN ISO 4263-1 c DIN ISO 6618)2.0
Compatible with SRE NBR seals after 7 days ± 2 h at 100°C (±1°C). Relative volume increase, % (DIN 53538-1 and DIN ISO 1817)0 to 180 to 150 to 120 to 10
Shore hardness change - A (DIN ISO 1817 incl. DIN ISO 7619-1)0 to -100 to -80 to -70 to -6
Deaeration, 50 °С maximum, min (DIN ISO 9120)5ten132132
Maximum foam volume, ml (ISO 6247:1998, incl. rev. 1:1999):
at 24 °C
at 93.5 °C
at 25 °C after 95 °C

150/0
75/0
150/0
Mechanical gear bench test FZGA/8.3/90 failure load stage, minimum (DIN51354-2 or DIN ISO 14 635-1)ten
Vane pump wear (DIN EN ISO 20 736)
rings, max. mg
Wings, max. mg









120
30







DIN 51 524 Part 3 - High index hydraulic oils
Grade (DIN 51 502)HL 10HL 15HL 22HL 32HL46HL68HL 100HL 150
ISO viscosity grade (DIN 51 519)VG 10VG 15VG 22VG 32VG46VG68VG 100VG 150
Viscosity at 0°C / -20°C maximum, mm 2 / s 
(DIN EN ISO 3104)
Supplier must report
Viscosity at 40 °C minimum - maximum, mm 2 / s (DIN EN ISO 3104)9.0-11.013.5-16.519.8-24.228.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890.0-110135-165
Viscosity at 100 °C minimum, mm 2 / s
(DIN EN ISO 3104)
Supplier must report
Viscosity index140120
Maximum pour point, °С (DIN ISO 3016)-39-39-39-thirty-27-24-21-eighteen
Flash point minimum, °С (DIN EN ISO 2592)125125175175180180190200
Purity class (ISO 4406:1999)21/19/16 (Specific requirements vary by system)
Solid contaminants max. mg/kg (DIN ISO 5884 or ISO 4405:1991)fifty
Filterability without H 2 O, stage IF / stage IIF, minimum, % (DIN ISO 13357-2)80/60
Filterability c Н 2 O, stage IF / stage IIF, minimum, % (DIN ISO 13357-1)70/50
Maximum demulsibility, minutes (DIN ISO 6614)20 (54°С)30 (54°C)30 (82°С)
Maximum water content, % m/m (DIN FN ISO 12937)0.05
Steel Corrosion - Method A (DIN ISO 7120)Withstands
Corrosion of copper at 100 °C, 3 h maximum, corrosion degree (DIN EN ISO 2160)2
Oxidation resistance (maximum increase in acid number after 100 h) in mg KOH/g, - maximum (DIN EN ISO 42631-1 c DIN ISO 6618)2.0
Compatible with SRE NBR seals after 7 days ± 2 h at 100°C (±1°C). Relative volume increase, % (DIN ISO 1817 c DIN ISO 7619-10 to 180 to 150 to 120 to 10
Shore hardness change - A (DIN ISO 1817 c DIN ISO 7619-1)0 to -100 to -80 to -70 to -6
Deaeration, 50 °С maximum, min (DIN ISO 9120)5132132
Maximum foam volume, ml (ISO 6247:1998, incl. corrections 1:1999):
at 24 °C
at 93.5 °C
at 25 °C after 95 °C

150/0
75/0
150/0
FZG mechanical gear test (DIN ISO 14 635-1)≥10
Vane pump wear (DIN EN ISO 20 736)
rings, max. mg
Wings, max. mg







≤120
≤ 30






Classification of hydraulic oils according to ISO 6743 - 4

Classification of hydraulic oils ISO 6743 - 4

ISO – L – HH Mineral oils free of corrosion inhibitors

ISO – L – HL HH oils with antioxidant and anti-corrosion additives

ISO – L – HM HL oils with anti-wear additives

ISO – L – HR High Viscosity Index HL oils

ISO – L – HV HM oils with high viscosity index

ISO – L – HG HM oils, impact softening

ISO - L - HS Synthetic Fluids

Classification of refractory hydraulic fluids ISO 6743 - 4

ISO - L - HFAE Oil-in-water emulsion

ISO – L – HFAS Chemical compounds in water

ISO – L – HFB Water-fat emulsion

ISO - L - HFC Water / Glycol

ISO - L - HFDR Phosphoric esters - water free

ISO - L - HFDS Chlorinated hydrocarbons - water free

ISO – L – HFDT HFDR / HFDS blends

ISO - L - HFDU Anhydrous liquids, more stable than HFDR, HFDS or HFDT

Classification of biodegradable hydraulic fluids ISO 6743 - 4

ISO – L – HETG Triglycerides (vegetable oils)

ISO – L – HEES Synthetic esters

ISO – L – HEPG Polyglycols

Classification of gear oils. DIN 51 517.

The DIN 51517 standard applies to gears and is divided into three sections:

  • Part 1 (Type C)

Gear oils without additives. Can be used in unloaded systems, ISO VG 7-680.

  • Part 2 (type CL)

Oils containing additional antioxidant additives and corrosion inhibitors. Class CL oils have a longer service life than class C oils and can be used in systems that do not require anti-wear properties. Typical applications are circulating lubrication systems, ISO VG 5-460.

  • Part 3 (CLP type)

Gear oils containing, in addition to antioxidant additives and corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear additives. They are used in systems where long shift life and wear protection are required.

Currently, DIN 51517 Part 3 is the main requirement for lubricants recommended for use by gear manufacturers such as Winergy, Flender, Eickhoff, Hansen Transmissions, Moventas, etc., ISO VG 46-680.

DIN 51517 includes the following tests on gear oils for parameters such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, corrosion of copper and steel plates, scuffing and seizing tests, bearing wear.

TestsLimit valuesTest method
CLP32CLP46CLP68CLP 100CLP 150CLP 220CLP 320CLP460CLP680CLP 1000CLP 1500
ISO viscosity grade32466810015022032046068010001500-
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, min.-max., mm 2 / s28.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890-110135-165198-242288-352414-506612-748900-11001350-1650DIN EN ISO 3104
Viscosity index9085DIN ISO 2909
Flash point, minimum, °С180200DIN EN ISO 2592
Pour point, maximum, °C-12-9-3DIN ISO 3016
Density at 15 °С, maximum, g/mlNot standardizedDIN 51 757
Water content, %<0.1 max.DIN 51 777-2
Foam after 10 minutes, stage I, II, III100/10150/60ISO 6427
Demulsibility at 54°С maximum, °С, minutesthirty-DIN ISO 6614
Demulsibility at 82°С maximum, °С, minutes-thirty4560DIN ISO 6614
Corrosion of copper at 100 °C, 3 h maximum1 max.DIN EN ISO 2160
Steel Corrosion - Method AWithstandsDIN ISO 7120
Oxidation resistance (maximum increase in acid number at 95°C after 312 h): Viscosity increase at 100°C; <% Sediment, %6 max; <0.1 max.DIN EN ISO 4263-4
Test on a mechanical gear bench FZGA/8.3/90 load failure stage, minimum12DIN ISO 14 635-1
FAG FE-8 bearing wear: Roller wear, mg; Chamber wear, mg30 max; Not requiredDIN 51 819-3
Compatible with SRE NBR seals after 7 days ± 2 h at 100 °С: DIN ISO 1817
Relative volume increase, %, max.0 to +10DIN ISO 1817
Shore hardness change — A, % max.10 to +5DIN ISO 1817
Change ptensile strength, %, max.thirtyDIN ISO 1817
Elongation change, %, max.40DIN ISO 1817
Classification of turbine oils. DIN 51 515.

DIN 51 515 classification of turbine oils

CharacteristicNormal turbine oils, turbine oils for steam turbinesHigh temperature turbine oils
No EP AdditivesDIN 51 515-1DIN 51 515-2
With extreme pressure additivesDIN 51 515-1DIN 51 515-2
FZG load stage at least 8Annex AAnnex A

Annex A (regulatory) for turbine oils with EP additives. If the supplier of the turbine oil also supplies a set of turbine gears, then the oil must be able to withstand at least the eighth load stage in accordance with DIN 51 345 part 1 and part 2 (FZG).

Requirements for oils for steam turbines. D1N 51 515. Part 1 LTD for normal use

TestsLimit valuesTest method
Lubricating oils groupTD 32TD46TD68TD 100-
ISO viscosity grade324668100DIN 51519
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °С,mm 2 /s28.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890.0-110ISO 3104
Viscosity index, minimum90ISO 2909
Flash point, minimum, °С185185205215ISO 2592
Deaeration properties at 50 °C maximum, min.556Not standardizedDIN 9120
Density at 15 °C,maximum, g/mlMust be specified by the supplierISO 3675
Pour point, maximum, °C-6ISO 3016
Ash content (oxide ash) % wt.Must be specified by the supplierISO6245
Water content, max.mg/kg150ISO 12937
Purity level, minimum20/17/14ISO 4406
Water separation (after steam treatment), maximum, s300DIN 51 589-1
Copper corrosion, maximum Corrosivity (3 h at 100 °C)2ISO 2160
Steel corrosion protection, maximumNo rustISO 7120
Oxidation Stability (TOST) 3) Time in hours to reach delta NZ 2.0 mg KOH/g300025002000ISO 4263-1
Foam:  
Stage I at 24 °C, maximum, ml450/0ISO 6247
Stage II at 93 °C, maximum, ml100/0ISO 6247
Stage III at 24 °C after 93 °C, maximum, ml450/0ISO 6247

Requirements for high temperature turbine oils. DIN 51 515 Part 2 L-TG for high temperature applications

Lubricating oils groupLimit valuesTest method
TG 32TG 46
ISO viscosity grade3246DIN 51519
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °С, mm 2 /s28.8-35.241.4-50.6ISO 3104
Viscosity index, minimum90ISO 2909
Flash point (in a closed crucible), minimum, °С185185ISO 2592
Air release properties 4) at 50 °C, maximum, min.5DIN 9120
Density at 15 °С, minimum, g/mlMust be specified by the supplierISO 3675
Pour point, maximum, °C-6ISO 3016
Ash (oxide ash), % wt.Must be specified by the supplierISO 6245
Water content, max.mg/kg150ISO 12937
Purity level, minimum20/17/14ISO 4406
Foam:  
Stage 1 at 24 °C, maximum, ml450/0ISO 6247
Stage II at 93 °C, maximum, ml100/0ISO 6247
Stage III at 24 °C after 93 °C, maximum, m;450/0ISO 6247
Water separation (after steam treatment), maximum, s300DIN 51 589-1
Copper corrosion, maximum Corrosivity (3 h at 125 °C)2ISO 2160
Oxidation Stability (TOST) 3) Time in hours to reach delta NZ 2.0 mg KOH/g3500ISO 4263-1
RPVOT, min750ASTM D2272
Modified RPVOT, % time minute in unmodified test method, min85ASTM D2272
Classification of turbine oils. ISO 6743-5.

ISO 6743-5 Brief classification of turbine lubricating oils combined with ISO/CD 8068

CharacteristicNormal turbine oilsHigh temperature turbine oils
No EP AdditivesISO-L-TSA (steam)
ISO-L-TGA (gas)
ISO-L-TGB (gas)
ISO-L-TGSB=(TGA + TGB quality)
With FZG EP additives, load stage at least 8ISO-L-TSE (steam)
ISO-L-TGE (gas)
ISO-L-TGF
ISO-L-TGSE

ISO 6743 Part 5 Group T (turbines)

Classification of lubricants, industrial oils and related products (Class L) - Group T (turbines)

ISO symbolRequirements for the type and/or characteristics of the productApplication: general/limited/specific/typicalNotes
TSAHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability propertiesSteam turbines, normal operation. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, associated control systems where non-flammable fluids are not required. Marine drives where improved gear load capacity is not required. 
TSEHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability properties and increased carrying capacitySteam turbines, high bearing capacity. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, marine gear drives and related control systems requiring improved gear load capacity. 
TSDLubricant based on phosphoric acid esterSteam turbines;  
TGAHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability propertiesGas turbines without or with gears, normal operation. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, associated control systems where non-flammable fluids are not required or necessary. Marine drives where improved gear load capacity is not required. 
TGBHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability propertiesGas turbines without or with gears, high temperature operation. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, associated control systems where high temperature resistance is required. 
TGCHSynthetic fluids, polyalphaolefins and related hydrocarbonsGas turbines without or with gears, with special properties. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, coupled control systems where the application requires special fluid properties (increased oxidation stability, low temperature properties, etc.). 
TGCESynthetic fluids, synthetic estersGas turbines without or with gears, with special properties. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, coupled control systems where the application requires special fluid properties (increased oxidation stability, low temperature properties, etc.).Such fluids may also show some signs of environmental acceptability.
TGDLubricant based on phosphoric acid esterGas turbines without gears or with them, with fire-resistant properties. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, associated control systems where high temperature resistance is required. 
TGEHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability properties and increased carrying capacityGas turbines without or with gears, high bearing capacity. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, marine gear drives and related control systems requiring improved gear load capacity. 
TGFHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability properties and increased carrying capacityGas turbines without gears or with them, high temperature conditions and high load-bearing capacity. Typical: power generation and industrial drives, coupled control systems where high temperature resistance and high load capacity are required. 
TGSBHighly refined petroleum oil or synthetic fluids with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability propertiesSingle-shaft steam-gas turbines with a common lubrication system, high-temperature operation. Typical: power generation and control systems where non-flammable fluids are not required. 
TGSEHighly refined petroleum oil or synthetic fluids with anti-corrosion properties and oxidation stability with increased load carrying capacitySingle-shaft steam-gas turbines with a common lubrication system, high-temperature operation and high bearing capacity. Typical: power generation and control systems with improved gear load capacity when non-flammable fluids are not required. 
TCDPhosphoric acid ester fluidControl systems, fire resistant. Typical: control mechanisms of steam, gas, hydraulic turbines where the fluid supply is separate from the lubricant and a non-flammable fluid is required. 
THAHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion and oxidation stability propertiesHydraulic systems, normal operation. Typical: hydro turbines and hydrostatic system. 
THCHSynthetic fluids, polyalphaolefins and related hydrocarbonsHydraulic systems with special properties. Typical: hydro turbines where low toxicity and safety properties for the aquatic and environment are required. 
THCESynthetic fluids, synthetic estersHydraulic systems with special properties. Typical: hydro turbines where low toxicity and safety properties for the aquatic and environment are required. 
TheHighly refined petroleum oil with anti-corrosion properties and oxidation stability with additives that increase the coefficient of friction and anti-wear additivesHydraulic systems with high bearing capacity. Typical: hydro turbines without hydrostatic systems. 
Classification of compressor oils. DIN 51506.

Classification of oils for air compressors according to DIN 51 506

Lubricating oil categoryFor compressors on mobile vehicles for brakes, signaling devices and dump trucksFor compressors with storage tanks and piping
VDL220220
VC220160 a)
VCL220160 a)
VB140140
VBL140140

a) Rotary multi-vane compressors designed for single-pass lubrication can be operated at temperatures up to 180°C when lubricated with engine oils with additives or compressor oils with additives, provided that the requirements for VCL lubricating oils are met.


Minimum requirements for compressor oils according to DIN 51 506

VB and VC are pure mineral oils, VB-L and VD-L contain an L additive to improve aging resistance and corrosion protection.

Category VB and VBL

TestsVB and VBL
Limit values
Test method
ISO viscosity grade22324668100150220320460 
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, min.-max., mm 2 / s19.8-24.228.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890-110135-165198-242288-352414-506DIN 51 562-1
Kinematic viscosity at 100 °C, min.-max., mm 2 / sNot standardizedDIN 51 562-1
Viscosity indexNot standardizedDIN ISO 2909
Flash point, minimum, °С175195205210255DIN EN ISO 2592
Pour point, maximum, °C-9-30DIN ISO 3016
Ash content (oxide ash) % mass, max.0.02DIN EN ISO 6245
Ash content (sulfated ash) % mass, maxMust be specified by the supplierDIN 5157
Water content, maximum, mg/kg0.05DIN ISO 6618
Acid number, mg KOH/g, max.VB, maximum 0.15 mg KOH/g; VBL - must be specified by the vendorDIN ISO 6618
Aging characteristics % CRC, max. after air aging2.02.5DIN ISO 6617

VDL category

TestsVDL
limit values
Test method
ISO viscosity grade324668100150 
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, min.-max., mm 2 / s28.8-35.241.4-50.661.2-74.890-110 135-165DIN 51 562-1
Kinematic viscosity at 100 °C, min.-max., mm 2 / sNot standardizedDIN 51 562-1
Viscosity indexNot standardizedDIN ISO 2909
Flash point, minimum, °С175195205210DIN EN ISO 2592
Pour point, maximum, °C-9-3DIN ISO 3016
Ash content (oxide ash) % mass, max.0.02DIN EN ISO 6245
Ash content (sulfated ash) % mass, maxMust be specified by the supplierDIN 5157
Water content, maximum, mg/kg0.05DIN ISO 6618
Acid number, mg KOH/g, max.Must be specified by the supplierDIN ISO 6618
Aging characteristics % CRC, max. after air agingNot requiredDIN ISO 6617
Aging characteristics % CRC, max. after aging in the presence of air / Fe 2 O 32.53.0DIN 51352-2
Aging characteristics % CRC, max. <20% residue after distillation0.30.6DIN 51551-1
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, max. <20% residue after distillationMaximum five times the value of new oilEN ISO 3104+DIN 51562-1
Classification of oils for sliding guides. DIN 51 502.

Classification of lubricants according to DIN 51 502

The German Institute for Standardization (German: Deutsches Institut für Normung eV abbr. DIN) is Germany's national organization for standards development.

Mineral oils (Lubricating oils, Specialty oils)

ApplicationDistinguishing letterInstalled
Lubricants AN (normal lubricating oils)ANDIN 51501L-AN 1)
ATF Lubricating Oils (Automatic Transmission Fluids)ATF-+
Lubricants B (for example: containing bitumen)ATDIN 51513VA, BB, BC
Lubricating oils C (circulating oils)FROMDIN 51517 part 3C, CL, CLP 2)
Lubricating oils for slideways)CG 2)  
Lubricating oils D (turbine oils)   
Lubricating oils F (air filter oils)   
Lubricating oils FS (mold release oils)FS  
Hydraulic oils HHDIN 51524 part 2HL, HLP
Hydraulic oils HVHVDIN 51524 part 3HVLP2 )
Lubricating oils HD (automotive lubricating oils)HD--
Lubricating oils HYP (lubricating oils for automobile transmissions)HYP--
Oil J (transformer)--JA, JB
Oil for refrigeration machines KToDIN 51503 part 1KA, KC
Oils LL--
Heat insulating oils QQDIN 51 522-
R oils (anti-corrosion oils)R--
S oils (cooling lubricants)S--
Lubricating oils and TD regulator oilsTDDIN 51 515 part 1L-TD 1)
Lubricating oils V (compressor oils)VDIN 51506VB, VBL, VC, VCL, VDL
Oils W (rolling)W--
Lubricating oils Z (steam engine oils)ZDIN 51 510ZA, ZB, ZD

Flammable working fluids

ApplicationDistinguishing letterInstalled
Oil-water emulsionHFA 3)DIN 24 320HFAE, HFAS 4)
Water-oil emulsionHFB3 )--
Water polymer solutionsHFC3 )--
Dehydrated liquidsHFD3 )-HFDR, HFDS, HFDT, HFDU

Synthetics or semi-synthetics

ApplicationDistinguishing letterInstalled
Complex organic etherE--
Fluorine containing liquidsFK--
Synthetic hydrocarbonsHC--
Phosphoric acid esterPH--
Polyglycol oilsPG--
silicone fluidsSi--
OtherX--

1) The international classifier may skip L (lubricants).

2) ISO/TR 3498:1986 uses the following characters: for CL=CB, for CLP=CC, for CG=G, for HL=HL, for HLP=HM, for HVLP=HV.

3) This breakdown is in accordance with ISO 6743/4:1982 and applies to the 6th Luxembourg Report (Standing Committee on Serviceability in the Hard Coal Industry).

4) For HFAS z. Z. No rule for requests.